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SpringCloud入门

coydone
2022-08-01 / 0 评论 / 0 点赞 / 307 阅读 / 18,644 字 / 正在检测是否收录...
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SpringCloud全部学习代码Gitee:https://gitee.com/coydone/study-cloud

准备

设置IDEA

1、设置IDEA编码:Settings→Editor→File Encodings

2、注解生效激活:Settings→Build,Execution,Deployment→Compiler→Annotation Processors

3、Java编译版本选8:Settings→Build,Execution,Deployment→Compiler→Java Compiler

4、File Type过滤idea、iml后缀文件:Settings→Editor→File Types

创建工程

1、IDEA创建一个Maven工程,Maven版本在3.5以上,删除src目录,作为父工程。

2、pom文件中修改打包方式为pom,管理添加项目依赖。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>com.coydone.springcloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>study-cloud</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>

    <!-- 统一管理jar包版本 -->
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
        <junit.version>4.12</junit.version>
        <log4j.version>1.2.17</log4j.version>
        <lombok.version>1.16.18</lombok.version>
        <mysql.version>5.1.47</mysql.version>
        <druid.version>1.1.16</druid.version>
        <mybatis.spring.boot.version>1.3.0</mybatis.spring.boot.version>
    </properties>
    
    <!-- 子模块继承之后,提供作用:锁定版本+子modlue不用写groupId和version -->
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <!--spring boot 2.2.2-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>2.2.2.RELEASE</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <!--spring cloud Hoxton.SR1-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Hoxton.SR1</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <!--spring cloud alibaba 2.1.0.RELEASE-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-alibaba-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>2.1.0.RELEASE</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>mysql</groupId>
                <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
                <version>${mysql.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
                <artifactId>druid</artifactId>
                <version>${druid.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
                <version>${mybatis.spring.boot.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>junit</groupId>
                <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
                <version>${junit.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>log4j</groupId>
                <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
                <version>${log4j.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
                <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
                <version>${lombok.version}</version>
                <optional>true</optional>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <fork>true</fork>
                    <addResources>true</addResources>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

</project>

DependencyManagement和Dependencies

Maven使用dependencyManagement元素来提供了一种管理依赖版本号的方式。

通常会在一个组织或者项目的最顶层的父POM中看到dependencyManagement元素。

使用pom.xml中的dependencyManagement元素能让所有在子项目中引用个依赖而不用显式的列出版本量。

Maven会沿着父子层次向上走,直到找到一个拥有dependencyManagement元素的项目,然后它就会使用这个dependencyManagement元素中指定的版本号。

如在父工程里:
<dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
        <groupId>mysq1</groupId>
        <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
        <version>5.1.2</version>
        </dependency>
    <dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>

在子项目里就可以添加mysql-connector时可以不指定版本号
<dependencies>
    <dependency>
    <groupId>mysq1</groupId>
    <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>

这样做的好处就是:如果有多个子项目都引用同一样依赖,则可以避免在每个使用的子项目里都声明一个版本号,这样当想升级或切换到另一个版本时,只需要在顶层父容器里更新,而不需要一个一个子项目的修改;另外如果某个子项目需要另外的一个版本,只需要声明version就可。

  • dependencyManagement里只是声明依赖,并不实现引入,因此子项目需要显示的声明需要用的依赖。

  • 如果不在子项目中声明依赖,是不会从父项目中继承下来的;只有在子项目中写了该依赖项,并且没有指定具体版本,才会从父项目中继承该项,并且version和scope都读取自父pom。

  • 如果子项目中指定了版本号,那么会使用子项目中指定的Jar版本。

Maven中跳过单元测试

IDEA右侧旁的Maven插件有Toggle ' Skip Tests' Mode按钮,这样Maven可以跳过单元测试。

父工程创建完成执行mvn : install将父工程发布到仓库方便子工程继承。

Rest微服务工程搭建

创建微服务模块套路:建Module、改POM、写YML、主启动、业务类。

微服务提供者

创建cloud-provider-payment8001微服务提供者支付Module模块:

1、建名为cloud-provider-payment8001的Maven工程。

2、改POM。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>study-cloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.coydone.springcloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-provider-payment8001</artifactId>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>druid-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
            <version>1.1.10</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--mysql-connector-java-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--jdbc-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>

3、写YML,在main/resources下创建application.yml文件。

server:
  port: 8001

spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-payment-service
  datasource:
    type: com.alibaba.druid.pool.DruidDataSource            # 当前数据源操作类型
    driver-class-name: org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver              # mysql驱动包
    url: jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/study_cloud?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=false
    username: root
    password: root123

mybatis:
  mapperLocations: classpath:mapper/*.xml
  type-aliases-package: com.coydone.springcloud.entity    # 所有Entity别名类所在包

4、编写主启动类。

package com.coydone.springcloud;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class PaymentMain8001 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(PaymentMain8001.class,args);
    }
}

5、编写业务代码。

(1)创建数据库并建表

# study_cloud库中创建payment表并添加数据
CREATE TABLE `payment`(
	`id` BIGINT(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT COMMENT 'ID',
    `serial` VARCHAR(200) DEFAULT '',
	PRIMARY KEY (id)
)ENGINE=INNODB AUTO_INCREMENT=1 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4

(2)实体类

package com.coydone.springcloud.entity;

import lombok.AllArgsConstructor;
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.NoArgsConstructor;

import java.io.Serializable;

@Data
@NoArgsConstructor
@AllArgsConstructor
public class Payment implements Serializable {
    private Long id;
    private String serial;
}

(3)JSON封装体CommonResult

package com.coydone.springcloud.entity;

import lombok.AllArgsConstructor;
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.NoArgsConstructor;

@Data
@AllArgsConstructor
@NoArgsConstructor
public class CommonResult<T> {
    private Integer code;
    private String message;
    private T data;

    public CommonResult(Integer code, String message){
        this(code, message, null);
    }
}

(4)Dao层

package com.coydone.springcloud.dao;

import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.Payment;
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Mapper;
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Param;

@Mapper
//@Repository 不用Spring的
public interface PaymentDao {
    int create(Payment payment);

    Payment getPaymentById(@Param("id") Long id);
}

resources/mapper/PaymentMapper.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE mapper PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Mapper 3.0//EN" "http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-mapper.dtd" >

<mapper namespace="com.coydone.springcloud.dao.PaymentDao">

    <insert id="create" parameterType="Payment" useGeneratedKeys="true" keyProperty="id">
        insert into payment(serial)  values(#{serial});
    </insert>

    <resultMap id="BaseResultMap" type="com.coydone.springcloud.entity.Payment">
        <id column="id" property="id" jdbcType="BIGINT"/>
        <id column="serial" property="serial" jdbcType="VARCHAR"/>
    </resultMap>

    <select id="getPaymentById" parameterType="Long" resultMap="BaseResultMap">
        select * from payment where id=#{id};
    </select>

</mapper>

(5)Service层

package com.coydone.springcloud.service;

import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.Payment;
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Param;

public interface PaymentService {

    int create(Payment payment);

    Payment getPaymentById(@Param("id") Long id);
}

package com.coydone.springcloud.service.impl;

import com.coydone.springcloud.dao.PaymentDao;
import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.Payment;
import com.coydone.springcloud.service.PaymentService;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

@Service
public class PaymentServiceImpl implements PaymentService {

    @Resource
    private PaymentDao paymentDao;

    @Override
    public int create(Payment payment) {
        return paymentDao.create(payment);
    }

    @Override
    public Payment getPaymentById(Long id) {
        return paymentDao.getPaymentById(id);
    }
}

(6)Controller层

package com.coydone.springcloud.controller;

import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.CommonResult;
import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.Payment;
import com.coydone.springcloud.service.PaymentService;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

@RestController
@Slf4j
public class PaymentController {

    @Resource
    private PaymentService paymentService;

    @PostMapping("/payment/create")
    public CommonResult<Payment> create(Payment payment) {
        int result = paymentService.create(payment);
        log.info("插入结果:" + result);

        if (result > 0) {
            return new CommonResult(200,"插入数据库成功",result);
        } else {
            return new CommonResult(444,"插入数据库失败",null);
        }
    }

    @GetMapping("/payment/get/{id}")
    public CommonResult<Payment> getPaymentById(@PathVariable("id") Long id) {
        Payment payment = paymentService.getPaymentById(id);
        log.info("查询结果:" + payment);

        if (payment != null) {
            return new CommonResult(200,"查询成功",payment);
        } else {
            return new CommonResult(444,"没有对应记录,查询id:" + id,null);
        }
    }
}

(7)测试,使用PostMan发送get/post请求测试。http://localhost:8001/payment/get/1、http://localhost:8001/payment/create?serial=coydone。

微服务消费者

创建cloud-consumer-order80微服务消费者订单Module模块

1、创建名为cloud-consumer-order80的Maven工程。

2、改POM。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>study-cloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.coydone.springcloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-consumer-order80</artifactId>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>

3、写YML。在resources下创建application.yml文件。

server:
  port: 80

4、主启动类。

package com.coydone.springcloud;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class OrderMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderMain80.class,args);
    }
}

5、业务类。

(1)实体类,将微服务提供者模块中的Payment、CommonResult复制到消费者模块即可。

(2)编写Controller层,我们使用RestTemplate对微服务提供者进行调用。

RestTemplate:提供了多种便捷访问远程Http服务的方法,是一种简单便捷的访问restful服务模板类,是Spring提供的用于访问Rest服务的客户端模板工具集。官网地址

使用:使用restTemplate访问restful接口非常的简单粗暴无脑,(url, requestMap, ResponseBean.class)这三个参数分别代表:REST请求地址、请求参数、HTTP响应转换被转换成的对象类型。

  • 编写配置类,将RestTemplate注入到Spring容器中。
package com.coydone.springcloud.config;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextConfig {

    @Bean
    public RestTemplate getRestTemplate() {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}
  • 编写Controller。
package com.coydone.springcloud.controller;

import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.CommonResult;
import com.coydone.springcloud.entity.Payment;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

@RestController
@Slf4j
public class OrderController {

    public static final String PAYMENT_URL = "http://localhost:8001";

    @Resource
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @GetMapping("/consumer/payment/create")
    public CommonResult<Payment> create(@RequestBody Payment payment) {
        return restTemplate.postForObject(PAYMENT_URL + "/payment/create",payment,CommonResult.class);
    }

    @GetMapping("/consumer/payment/get/{id}")
    public CommonResult<Payment> getPaymentById(@PathVariable("id") Long id) {
        return restTemplate.getForObject(PAYMENT_URL + "/payment/get/" + id,CommonResult.class);
    }
}

6、测试,运行cloud-consumer-order80与cloud-provider-payment8001两工程,浏览器输入:http://localhost/consumer/payment/get/1。

浏览器:http://localhost/consumer/payment/create?serial=coydone3,虽然返回成功,但是观测数据库中,并没有创建serialcoydone3的行。

在cloud-provider-payment8001工程的PaymentController中添加@RequestBody注解。

public class PaymentController {
	@PostMapping(value = "/payment/create")
    public CommonResult create(@RequestBody/*添加到这里*/ Payment payment){
		...
    }
}

开启Run DashBoard

  1. 打开工程路径下的.idea文件夹的workspace.xml

  2. <component name="RunDashboard">中修改或添加以下代码:

<option name="configurationTypes">
	<set>
		<option value="SpringBootApplicationConfigurationType"/>
    </set>
</option>

工程重构

观察cloud-consumer-order80与cloud-provider-payment8001两工程有重复代码(entity包下的实体),我们可以将其抽取出来重构工程。

1、新建cloud-api-commons模块,修改POM。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>study-cloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.coydone.springcloud</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-api-commons</artifactId>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>cn.hutool</groupId>
            <artifactId>hutool-all</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.0</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>

2、将cloud-consumer-order80与cloud-provider-payment8001两工程的公有entity包移至cloud-api-commons工程下。

maven clean、install cloud-api-commons工程,以供给cloud-consumer-order80与cloud-provider-payment8001两工程调用。

3、订单80和支付8001分别改造。

  • 将cloud-consumer-order80与cloud-provider-payment8001两工程的公有entity包移除。

  • 在它们的pom文件中引入cloud-api-commons依赖。

<!-- 引入自己定义的api通用包 -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.coydone.springcloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>cloud-api-commons</artifactId>
    <version>${project.version}</version>
</dependency>

4、重启工程、测试。

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